Diabetes mellitus is a long-term condition in which a person has high blood glucose (blood sugar). The blood delivers glucose to give the body enough energy to do all daily activities. The liver converts the food into glucose, and it is then released into the bloodstream from the liver between meals.
There are two types of this disease. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin, and in type 2 diabetes, the body is not able to use insulin effectively.
Type 1 diabetes
The body fails to produce insulin. People usually develop this type before the age of 40, often in teenage years or adulthood. Type 1 is not as common as type 2, only 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1.
Type 2 diabetes
The body either does not produce enough insulin or the cells do not react to it. The other 90% of diabetes cases are type 2.
What is important about prediabetes
A lot of patients with type 2 initially had prediabetes. The levels of glucose in their blood were higher than normal, but not high enough to merit a diabetes diagnosis. Some studies have indicated that even at prediabetes stage, the circulatory system and heart may have already been damaged.
Many people notice one or more of this very bad illness’ signs. Urinating frequently is number 1 symptom. Since the kidneys remove the excess glucose from the blood, it ends up in the urine and that causes more frequent urination. Increased thirst is something that you may also notice. When you loose an increased amount of fluid through already mentioned frequent urination, you become thirsty and you must drink much more fluids to stay hydrated. Unexplained weight loss is something that can frighten you. Since your body can’t use your blood glucose effectively, it starts to break down your energy stores such as fats, and you start to lose weight. Feeling tired is a very common sign, just like irritable mood and blurred vision.
How doctors find whether you have prediabetes, diabetes or neither
Doctors can determine the patient healthy or sick. There are three possible tests that you can take. The A1C test
– around 6.5% means that you are positive
– 5.7% to 6% means that you are at state near diabetes
– less that 5.7% means that you are healthy
The FPG aka fasting plasma glucose test
– around 125 mg/dl means diabetes
– between 100 and 126 mg/dl equals prediabetes
– less than 100 mg/dl means healthy
The OGTT also was known as oral glucose tolerance test
– 200 mg/dl means that you have diabetes
– between 140 and 200 mg/dl means that you almost have diabetes
– less than 140 mg/dl means healthy
Every type of diabetes is treatable, so don’t lose hope
Type 1 lasts forever, and there is no known cure. Patients are treated with insulin injections, special diet and also exercise. Type 2 mostly lasts a lifetime, but few people managed to cure it without medication, through exercise and certain diets. Also, sometimes insulin injections are required too.